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    題名: 引起番石榴果腐病之病原菌鑑定 及其病原性研究
    Studies on identification and pathogenicity of pathogens causing guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit rot
    Authors: 黃耀煌
    Yao-Huang Huang
    貢獻者: 王惠亮
    Hui-Liang Wang
    Keywords: 番石榴;致病性;藥劑篩選;淡紫色病斑
    Neofusicoccum parvum;Neofusicoccum mangiferae
    Date: 2010-02-23
    Issue Date: 2010-09-06 16:35:27 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 番石榴(Psidium guajava L.)屬於桃金?科(Myrtaceae),全年均可生產,目前栽培多以珍珠品種為主。由田間一罹病果實中分離出六種不同病原菌,依據病原菌的培養基形態、孢子特徵與病原性測定,進行觀察,並以分子生物技術進行病原菌鑑定,利用針對病原ribosomal DNA (rDNA)的通用引子(universal primer) GF-18S-F (5'-GG
    GAAGTAAAAGGTCGTAAC -3')及 ITS4 (5'-TCCTCCGCTTATTGAT
    ATGC-3')進行PCR反應,分析核糖體內轉錄間隔區(internal transcribed spacers,ITS)。鑑定出S3為Diaporthe sp.具α型及β型二種分生孢子,α型分生孢子為無色,單胞呈兩端較圓滑的紡錘型,胞內產生一至二個油小球,孢子大小約6.4 × 2.9 μm,β型分生孢子呈短絲狀,中央略為膨大,孢子大小約16.2 × 2.8 μm;S3-1為Phomopsis sp. 具α型及β型二種分生孢子,α型分生孢子為無色,單胞呈兩端較尖的紡錘型,胞內產生一至二個油小滴,孢子大小約 16.2 × 2.8 μm,β型孢子透明細長兩端呈微彎狀、無隔膜,孢子大小約 33.3 × 1.5 μm,S8為Neofusicoccum parvum分生孢子透明狀,呈棍棒狀且不規則的橢圓形,年輕孢子無隔膜,成熟孢壁可見2條橫紋,孢子大小約11.0 × 5.7 μm;S9為Neofusicoccum mangiferae分生孢子呈透明單胞,卵圓形,年輕孢子無隔膜,成熟孢子孢壁變較厚,孢壁可見1~3條橫紋,孢子大小約11.6 × 3.3 μm;T3為Pestalotiopsis sp.分生孢子紡錘形,具有4個隔膜(euseptate),分為5個胞室, 中央3胞室淡褐色, 首尾2胞室較無色透明。頂端的細胞上長有2至3的無色小剛毛(setulae),無隔膜及分枝,底端的細胞著生1不分枝的無色小梗 (pedicel),孢子大小約22.3 × 12.2 μm;T6為Botryodiplodia theobromae初為圓形或橢圓形,單室透明,成熟轉為橢圓形,雙室暗褐色,孢壁變較厚,壁上有一橫紋為其特徵,孢子大小約27.5 × 14.0 μm;其中Diaporthe sp.、Phomopsis sp. 是由同一果實分離出,而 Diaporthe sp. 係Phomopsis sp.的有性世代;利用PDA培養時Botryodiplodia theobromae生長最快第三日可長滿PDA,培養Pestalotiopsis sp.最慢;六種病菌接種在枝條與葉片僅Phomopsis sp.不會造成感染,但回接至番石榴果實時Phomopsis sp.也會造成感染,顯示其病原性較弱僅感染其果實;使用六種病原菌接種同科宿主的楊桃(Averrhoa carambola)及蓮霧(Syzygium samarangense Merr. & Perry)果實也會形成感染徵狀;以市售十二種化學藥劑二種生物殺菌藥劑,進行室內篩選六種病原菌的菌絲生長抑制性測試,結果顯示80%福賽快得寧(Fosety-Al+Oxine-copper) WP 800X,20%依滅列(Imazalil) EC 2000X 對六種病原菌有最佳抑制效果。二種生物殺菌藥劑中50%枯草桿菌Bacillus subtilis (台灣寶,百泰) WP 500X對六種病原菌菌絲有最佳抑制效果;放射線菌Streptomyces candidus (安心寶,百泰) SP 800X 對六種病原菌菌絲抑制效果不佳。
    Appears in Collections:[生物科技學系] 博碩士論文
    [生科系] 王惠亮

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