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    題名: 宋代山水畫中風水觀的顯現
    Feng Shui theories' analysis and application on Sung dynasty's landscape paintings
    Authors: 沈尚頤
    Shang-Yi Shen
    貢獻者: 盧福壽
    Fu-Show Lu
    Keywords: 宋代;山水畫;風水理論
    Feng Shui;Sung Dynasty;Landscape painting
    Date: 2015-08-18
    Issue Date: 2016-05-09 14:27:03 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 風水從創造友善自然環境的空間設計著手,進而判斷吉凶禍福的;山水畫是畫家寄託理想、追求畫面的氣韻靈動、或壯麗磅礡、簡秀曠遠。前者於流傳及演變中創造許多神祕故事與龐雜理論;後者隨發展脈絡,畫家多是師承或自成一格,將自身經驗與哲理思維等,融山川泉水中並呈現。
    本研究舉要十二幅現藏於臺北國立故宮博物院的宋代山水畫為本研究欲探索之對象,並以風水理論角度分析之,找出受風水觀念影響與否。
    風水與山水畫的種種可能關係使筆者提出四個欲解開之問題:(一)宋代畫家在其風水文化盛行的社會背景下作畫,其畫中引人入勝的景觀,是否受風水理論影響;(二)風水與山水間涉及許多相似的哲學範疇,如氣與氣韻、老莊、天人合一與天人感應等,是否是彼此間的相承關係或其演變而形成的結果;(三)宋代山水畫論與風水理論是否有其相同根源性,而又是什麼原因促成的;(四)將山水模式應用於觀看宋代山水畫,或者說以風水理論套入山水畫中,會不會是牽強而論。
    分析後發現北宋構景之巨巖谿壑,或被雲霧掩蓋部分、或於畫幅外等,而不易觀其完整山的發脈。「穴」則以陽基為對象,觀其地理位置及與周遭環境之相對關係,再探其吉與凶。南宋寫意筆法呈現之山,更是如此。惟畫中之瀑布、流泉、江河等,便可以水法論其吉水或凶水。
    據其結果,本研究針對風水畫中山水觀顯現與否,提出以下建議:(一)探討不同年代之畫作類型,或單一畫家之畫作,探究是否有其規律性。(二)風水之理論博大精深,其他方面如五術、易理或其他延伸出的核心理念,皆可作為方法試深究之。
    Feng Shui first created and designed a kind as well as natural space then etermined it's good or bad;Chinese landscape paintings are methods whom painters put his feelings and emotional on the landscape painting,as well as showing their own experience and philosophical thought.
    Using feng shui theories,this study investigated 12 Chinese landscape paintings of the Sung Dynasty kept at the National Palace Museum of Taiwan.
    Additionally,this study examined whether these paintings were influenced by feng shui. Four problems were proposed regarding the possible relationships between feng shui and these Chinese landscape paintings:
    a. The Song painters created the paintings when the culture of feng shui was pervasive;therefore,the compelling scenery in the paintings may have been influenced by feng shui;
    b. Because feng shui and Chinese landscape theories have similar philosophical elements such as qi (life) and qi-yun (artistic conception),Taoist philosophy of Zhuangzi and Laozi,which illustrate the harmony between nature and man as well as the mechanistic interaction between nature and humans,may have been inspired by a hereditary relationship or evolution;
    c . The theories regarding the relationship between Sung landscape paintings and feng shui originated from a common source;if so,the source of the subsequent development of this relationship remains to be clarified;
    d. Are landscape theories or Feng shui theories applicable for interpreting Chinese landscape paintings or are such application farfetched?
    After the analyzed these paintings,researcher found that results of the Sung
    dynasty had a lots in common,based on its same construct of the paintings.
    Based on the study,the researcher proposed two suggestions for the analysis on the landscape paintings. First,use other dynasty's landscape paintings or single painter's works as the materials of the research. Second,using other feng shui theories as the way of analysis materials. Perhaps may help to find more information about feng shui or plus to find another better method for the research.
    Appears in Collections:[美術學系] 博碩士論文
    [美術系] 盧福壽

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