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    題名: 農藥環境毒理、安全劑型及風險評估研究
    The Research of Pesticides in Environmental Toxicology, Safety Formula and Risk Assessment
    Authors: 田倩蓉;王一雄;江素瑛;王應然;張家銘;陳士賢;顏瑞泓;翁祖輝;陳師慶;王慶裕
    Chien-Jung Tien
    貢獻者: 生物科技系
    Keywords: 農藥;環境毒理;風險評估;添加劑;安全劑型
    Pesticide;Evironmental Toxicology;Risk Assessment;Adjuvant;Safety Formulation
    Date: 2009-01
    Issue Date: 2015-05-04 09:52:38 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 基礎研究, 研究期間 9801-9812, 研究經費6820仟元
    1. 環境荷爾蒙農藥之毒理研究–愛殺松對藥物代謝之影響(翁祖輝教授) (1) 探討愛殺松影響大鼠肝臟及睪丸之毒性及藥物代謝之劑量效應關係。 (2) 分析愛殺松對大鼠肝臟及睪丸之微粒細胞P450藥物代謝單氧酵素系統之影響。 (3) 檢測愛殺松+對大鼠肝臟及睪丸之細胞色素P450藥物代謝基因CYP1A1/2, CYP2B1/2, CYP2E1, CYP3A1/2之蛋白及mRNA表現之影響。 2. 台灣氣候下水田除草劑流向監測分析系統之建立(王慶裕教授) (1)建立不同期作下(I、II期作)水田中水平衡監測系統,及除草劑萃取分析方法,以及除草劑在田水與土壤中殘量監測。 (2)利用水田小型滲漏計(lysimeter)建立水田除草劑流向之偵測方法。 3. 有機磷農藥- 雙特松基因毒性和細胞毒性研究(陳師慶教授) 雙特松是國內常使用之有機磷農藥,農藥基因毒性之風險評估,將以三大類之細胞基因毒性方法檢測 (微核試驗,Ames test,染色體變異法和 comet assay),這些方法探討雙特松使用之不引起基因毒性之最低安全劑量。 並經由此計劃建立相關基因毒性檢測平台,提供國內相關農藥基因毒性技術檢測方法之推廣。體性評估。 4. 環境荷爾蒙農藥賽滅寧整體風險評估與管理研究(江素瑛教授) (1)蒐集整理期刊文獻上賽滅寧的毒性檔案(Toxicological Profiles) (2)執行賽滅寧消費者健康風險評估 (3)執行賽滅寧職業暴露風險評估(噴藥方式與噴藥後再進入(reentry)之暴露量安全評估) 5. 具降解農藥製劑界面活性劑-壬基酚能力之菌株篩選與特性分析(王一雄教授) 本年度目標乃是自土壤中分離具降解 NP能力之好氧純菌菌株,探討其在不同條件下對 NP的降解情形,最終期望能實際解決NP在環境中的污染情形。 6. 建立農藥中文毒理資料庫(王應然教授) 依照目前已登記農藥英文名稱之字母順序進行毒理資料的彙整評析及中文化,但排除已禁用之農藥名單。選取90種已登記之農藥進行毒理資料的彙整評析及中文化。 7. 嘉磷塞與納乃得單一與混合毒性對藻類之風險評估與管理(田蒨蓉教授) 將針對台灣常用之殺蟲劑納乃得與殺菌劑嘉賜黴素:(1)進行分析其對藻類之單一與混合毒性作用;(2)詳細探討其在單一與混合狀況下對藻類之生理代謝影響機制;(3)參考國外農藥對水生生物安全評估模式,評估此兩種農藥之施用對水生生物的安全,以了解其對國內生態環境的衝擊。 8. 有機磷劑、氨基甲酸鹽類及合成除蟲菊類農藥混合毒性及其風險評估研究(張家銘教授) 以國內使用量高的有機磷劑、氨基甲酸鹽類及合成除蟲菊類農藥為優先研究標的,就其已有的理論基礎和相關方法做一彙整,以提供應用者根據條件選用合適的評估方法,並進一步建立適用於本土條件之有機磷劑、氨基甲酸鹽類及合成除蟲菊類農藥混合毒性及其風險評估模式。 9. 高用量粒劑農藥加保扶及丁基拉草之環境及生態風險評估研究計畫(陳士賢教授) 進行生態區田間實驗了解加保扶及丁基拉草施用後所造成之環境濃度,調查其對土壤生態系生物受體之影響,評估高使用量之粒劑農藥對農業生態系造成環境及生態風險,並提出風險管理建議。1. 環境荷爾蒙農藥之毒理研究–愛殺松對藥物代謝之影響(翁祖輝教授) (1). 所擬試驗研究成果有助瞭解愛殺松對目標器官藥物代謝酵素之影響,此項藥理、毒理資料將可提供管理高風險環境荷爾蒙農藥如修訂農藥每日許可攝取量及農產品農藥殘留安全容許量等施政依據參考。 (2). 試驗成果將有助管理單位與農藥製造業者、農民、消費者或社會團體溝通有關使用愛殺松及環境荷爾蒙農藥之健康風險。 (3). 希將試驗結果發表於學術會議及期刊,以增計畫成果之應用價值。 2. 台灣氣候下水田除草劑流向監測分析系統之建立(王慶裕教授) (1)確立以生物、生化與化學分析丁基拉草與百速隆在田水與田土中殘毒檢測技術,以提供檢測者靈敏且快速之偵測方法。 (2)建立台灣水稻栽培環境下除草劑流向監測方法與利用模擬模式(simulation model)確立準確的環境風險評估方法。 3. 有機磷農藥- 雙特松基因毒性和細胞毒性研究(陳師慶教授) 雙特松(Dicrotophos)四種基因毒性測試實驗 (Ames test, chromosome aberrationassay, comet assay, and micronuclei test) 和兩種細胞毒性試驗 (trypan blue test andMTT assay),將建立劑量與反應之間的相關性,建立安全劑量使用範圍。本實驗以 CHO 細胞株 和 Hep G2 細胞株測試農藥代謝前和代謝後之對細胞 DNA 產生可能性影響,並已老鼠實驗作微核實驗,強化此計劃 relevance,此方法之建立,可應用在多種農藥之基因毒性風評估,建立國內農藥使用安全性評估資料, 4. 環境荷爾蒙農藥賽滅寧整體風險評估與管理研究(江素瑛教授) (1)收集統整環境荷爾蒙農藥賽滅寧的毒性檔案。 (2)完成賽滅寧消費者健康風險評估。 (3)完成賽滅寧製造者與使用者健康風險評估(噴藥方式)與噴藥後再進入(reentry)之暴露量安全評估 5. 具降解農藥製劑界面活性劑-壬基酚能力之菌株篩選與特性分析(王一雄教授) 預期從土壤中分離出具降解 NP能力之好氧純菌菌株,並求得其降解 NP的最佳條件。 6. 建立農藥中文毒理資料庫(王應然教授) 建立完整之農藥中文毒理資料庫並上網公告。 7. 嘉磷塞與納乃得單一與混合毒性對藻類之風險評估與管理(田蒨蓉教授) (1)獲得納乃得與嘉賜黴素對藻類之單一與混合毒性數據,建立本土藻類毒性資料庫。 (2)了解納乃得與嘉賜黴素在單一與混合狀況對藻類生理代謝影響機制。 (3)在納乃得與嘉賜黴素混合之下,獲得其對藻類之毒性效應。 (4)結合毒性試驗結果,建立納乃得與嘉賜黴素之水生生物風險評估方法與指標,進而推估此兩種農藥使用後對環境生態影響,提供農委會對該農藥管制之參考。 8. 有機磷劑、氨基甲酸鹽類及合成除蟲菊類農藥混合毒性及其風險評估研究(張家銘教授) 完成國內使用量較高的有機磷劑、氨基甲酸鹽類及合成除蟲菊類農藥混合毒性及其風險評估方法之彙整與分析,提供應用者根據條件選用合適的評估模式,並建立適用於國內條件之有機磷劑、氨基甲酸鹽類及合成除蟲菊類農藥混合毒性及其風險評估模式,此評估方法將可更方便快速地得到概觀性的混合毒性趨勢,且可減少實驗所需的人力、時間及成本花費。 9. 高用量粒劑農藥加保扶及丁基拉草之環境及生態風險評估研究計畫(陳士賢教授) (1)本研究將探討粒劑農藥吸脫附作用,選定田間實驗樣區進行吸附實驗以探討農藥之吸附性,求得二種農藥在不同土壤的吸附係數,驗證加保扶及丁基拉草在農業生態系之模式推估值(預期環境濃度)與田間實驗實測值之差異,以此評估農藥對農業生態系之環境風險。 (2)本研究將建立田間實驗樣區加保扶及丁基拉草殘留監測數據,配合毒理資料,推估陸生生物暴露劑量及調查加保扶及丁基拉草對土壤生態系生物受體之影響(如死亡率及族群動態)。 (3)本研究將建立兩種農藥之生態風險評估方法與指標,進而推估兩種農藥使用後之生態風險。 (4)本研究最後將建立暴露模式及整合兩種農藥之暴露風險、生態風險評估資料及風險管理建議,以提供農委會進一部辦理該等農藥之重新評估管理。
    1. 環境荷爾蒙農藥之毒理研究–愛殺松對藥物代謝之影響(翁祖輝教授) There is an increasing concern that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may alter important physiological functions under endocrine control such as growth, sexual differentiation, and reproduction in human and wildlife species. Endocrine disruption possibly plays etiological roles in many diseases including female breast cancer and male reproductive failure. Pesticides constitute a majority of the hormonally active environmental compounds of concern, due to their biological activities and characteristically high lipophilicity and persistence. Many insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides exhibit marked endocrine-disrupting and reproductive effects. The long-term goal of the research plan is to understand the mechanism of interaction between endocrine system and pesticides humans may be exposed. The major objectives of the proposed studies are to investigate the ability of dicofol to alter drug metabolism in the target organs liver and testis of rats. The specific aims of the proposed studies are to investigate the dose-response relationships of the effects of dicofol on toxicity and drug metabolism, to characterize the effects of the pesticide on monooxygenases responsible for drug metabolism, and to determine the effects of dicofol on protein and mRNA expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. The results of the proposed studies will lead to a better understanding of the ability of the hormonally active pesticide dicofol to alter drug metabolism and to elicit related toxicities. These results will provide valuable information for the assessment of potential hazards associated with exposure to the hormonally active pesticides. These results will also aid the implement of policy and regulatory measure of the endocrine-disrupting pesticides in Taiwan. 2. 台灣氣候下水田除草劑流向監測分析系統之建立(王慶裕教授) The purpose of this research is to establish the herbicide monitoring system of paddy rice in order to trace the fate of herbicide residues in paddy environment under the climatic conditions of the two crop seasons of rice in Taiwan. The simulation model of this monitoring system is also expected to predict the herbicide dissipation and its fate in paddy field based on the water management and climatic conditions during crop season, which is a fundamental work to estimate the risk of herbicide pollution to our environment. Two herbicides, butachlor and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, commonly used and wide-spread in Taiwan will be examined in this project. All experiments in the first year include: 1. Establishment of herbicide extraction methods with more than 90% recovery rate of herbicide extraction from paddy soils and paddy water. 2. Establishment of three kinds of herbicide analysis methods including bioassay, biochemical marker and HPLC detection techniques. And an appropriate time to use these methods will be suggested. 3. To set up the monitoring system of herbicide in paddy field environment in two rice crop seasons in Taiwan. This system and related studies will be conducted and tested in a paddy field, greenhouse and laboratory. In paddy field experiment, monitoring system of water balance, application of lysimeter, and herbicide detection coupled with PCPF-1 simulation model are integrated to explore the fate of herbicides. In the second year, photolysis, chemical hydrolysis, and biodegradation of herbicides in paddy soils will be studied in the greenhouse in order to preclude the unexpected rainfall factor. And further experiments, such as herbicide photolysis by an artificial UV illumination and microbial degradation of herbicides under the controlled incubator, will be performed in lab. In addition, risk of herbicide pollution will be evaluated and tested practically in paddy field in central Taiwan based on the simulation system constructed in the first year. 3. 有機磷農藥- 雙特松基因毒性和細胞毒性研究(陳師慶教授) Dicrotophos is an organophosphorous pesticide. Foue different tests such as Ames test, chromosome aberration assay, comet assay, and micronuclei test were applied for determination of genotoxicity, since the genotoxicity of dicrotophos is uncertain. 4. 環境荷爾蒙農藥賽滅寧整體風險評估與管理研究(江素瑛教授) 未列英文摘要 5. 具降解農藥製劑界面活性劑-壬基酚能力之菌株篩選與特性分析(王一雄教授) Recently, the necessary of foods are result in the use of pesticides which are rapidly increasing in our world. The nonylphenol (NP) have been widely used as inserts. NP is a group of additives used in pesticides to increase the Solubility of pesticide . According to the report of environmental distributions and physiological effects, NP is listed into the endocrine disruptors. However, contrasted with the distributions and toxicity of animal, the potential effects of agricultural microorganism should be more concerned by government organizations. This project contrasts the characterization and isolation of nonylphenol degrading bacteria from agriculture soil in Taiwan. 6. 建立農藥中文毒理資料庫(王應然教授) Gathering together and evaluating and analysing the toxicology database of pesticides registered in Taiwan, set up the Chinese Toxicology Databank of Pesticides. Processing priority will be according to the pesticides' alphabetical order but exclude the pesticides which had been forbidden. All the toxicological data collected from scientific-based research and toxicological assay. The main goal is to provide information as assessing the harmfulness to the health of human being or the environment. 7. 嘉磷塞與納乃得單一與混合毒性對藻類之風險評估與管理(田蒨蓉教授) Algae are the dominant primary producers and sensitive to changes in water quality. Many studies have used algal toxicity test to assess the toxic effects of pesticides on aquatic organisms and plants. Algae and plants have similar physiological metabolic activities. Analysis of pesticide toxic effects on algae may help to understand possible toxic effects of pesticides on plants. On the other hand, aquatic organisms normally exposed to many pesticides. The toxic effects of mixed pesticides to aquatic organisms are not simply as the addition effect, but as antagonism or synergism. Insecticide methomyl and fungicide kasugamycin are widely used on rice, vegetables and fruits in Taiwan. Therefore, this study not only uses algal toxicity test to analyze the toxic effects of these two pesticides, but also determines the toxic mechanism of mixed pesticides, and establishes the method of ecological risk assessment in order to assess the impact of these two pesticides to aquatic ecosystems as the references for water protection and pesticide management by government organizations. 8. 有機磷劑、氨基甲酸鹽類及合成除蟲菊類農藥混合毒性及其風險評估研究(張家銘教授) During the past few decades, the vast majority of toxicological studies of agrochemicals have been concerned with the evaluation of exposures to single compounds. However, in practice, humans are exposed to complex and variable mixtures of agrochemicals, which may act independently as in a single exposure, but may also interact to modulate the effects of the mixture as a whole and components therein. Risk assessment of real life exposures is thus much more difficult than that of exposure to single agents. In assessing such risks from a health perspective, it is necessary to assess whether agrochemicals in a mixture interact to produce an increased or different overall response as compared with the sum of the responses of the individual agrochemicals present in the mixture. This project considers the effects of mixtures of organophosphorus, carbamate and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides and the implications of exposure to such mixtures for the risk assessments carried out during the approval processes for these substances. It summarizes current knowledge of the toxicology of organophosphorus, carbamate and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides mixtures, including methods and general terminology used in the field of mixture toxicology together with potential mechanisms by which interactions between agrochemicals within a mixture may occur. 9. 高用量粒劑農藥加保扶及丁基拉草之環境及生態風險評估研究計畫(陳士賢教授) Risk assessment plays a critical role in the pesticide regulation evaluation of the potential human health and ecological hazards associated with pesticide exposure. The objective of this study is to conduct field study to assess environmental and ecological risk of carbofuran and butachlor. Estimation of the risks will be associated with all pertinent pathways of exposure in a manner that is both realistic and reflective of variability due to differences in location, time characteristics of exposed groups (e.g., soil, groundwater, and wildlife). Mesocosm study will be conducted to assess potential distribution of residual pesticides in soil and groundwater of the designated agricultural ecosystem. In particular sorption of carbofuran and butachlor onto soil from field results will be compared with model estimation. Potential impact of indicator species will be investigated by examing the population density or motality. Ecological risk assessment will be conducted to evaluate the impact of pesticides in agricultural ecosystems. The results of this project will be used to assist decision making and strategy development in pesticide management.
    關聯: 行政院農委會計畫 / 計畫編號 98農科-9.2.2-檢-B3
    Appears in Collections:[生物科技學系] 研究計畫
    [生科系] 田倩蓉
    [生科系] 陳士賢

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