Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) have attracted great attention due to their estrongenic activities and occurrence in different environments. This study investigated concentrations of NP and BPA in water and sediments of 16 major rivers in Taiwan to determine their association with water quality parameters on their distribution. The sources of NP and BPA discharged into river environments were also identified. The results showed that concentrations of NP and BPA were in the range of 0.02–3.94 and 0.01–44.65 μg L?1 in water and 6.59–47797.69 and 0.37–491.54 μg kg?1 dry weight in sediments. High levels of NP and BPA in water and sediments were measured in sampling sites near highly industrialized and urbanized areas. Construction of the sewage system and wastewater treatment plant has decreased these chemicals discharged into Love River. Dilution effects and erosion of surface sediments in the high-flow season resulted in lower concentrations of NP and BPA detected in sediments of most rivers than those in the low-flow season. Occurrence characteristics of NP and BPA in water and sediments were mainly related to organic carbon contents in sediments and several water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH, concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen and total organic carbon in water. Effluents from NP/BPA-related factories appeared to be the major discharge sources of NP and BPA. Use and waste of BPA-containing products in household activity was the another discharge source of BPA, but handling NP-containing products became an important source of NP only in the low-flow season.