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    題名: 漢語副詞「還」、「更」在「比」字句結構的語法與語用探析─以語料庫為本
    Authors: 蔡百峯
    貢獻者: 王萸芳
    Yu-Fang Wang
    Keywords: 程度副詞;「還」;「更」;「比」字句;語法;語用;華語
    degree adverb;h?i (還);g?ng (更);b? (比) sentence;Syntax;Pragmatics;Mandarin Chinese
    Date: 2014-01-01
    Issue Date: 2014-10-28 15:20:40 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究旨在研究探討漢語副詞「還」、「更」於「比」字句中的語法結構與語用功能之特徵。其理論背景包含Halliday (1994)的系統功能語法理論、Grice (1975)合作原則與Leech (1983)禮貌原則、Frege (1892)的預設、Lyons (1977)的主觀性與Traugott (1995)的主觀化、以及Halliday and Hasan (1976)的篇章銜接手段。在滿足「比」字句的語法意義為基礎之下,再從語法與語用的角度,分析含「還」、「更」的「比」字句之句式結構與語用特徵。此外,對於「比」字句內的「還」、「更」之變體結構與類型也進行了分析討論。

    從研究結果中發現,在比較結果項(W)方面,「還」、「更」於「比」字句中的修飾功能,最常搭配修飾的就是形容詞。在比較項(X、Y)方面,句式結構的組合與Halliday and Hasan (1976)的篇章銜接手段有直接關係,主要是受到了言談經濟原則(economy principle)的影響。「比」字句中的「還」、「更」若能互換,則是屬於客觀性陳述之用法;若不能互換,則是受到了不同的語用作用之影響,因而改變了句義的真值。相較於「更」具有「程度比較」或「遞進比較」的意涵,「還」則具有「反預期義」、「主觀性心理」、「轉折變化」、「誇大比喻」等不同的語用功能。從語料分析中可以發現,「還」的語用功能與Grice (1975)的「合作原則」或Leech (1983)的「禮貌原則」有直接的關係。另外,「還」的變體中有「還要」、「還更」以及「還要更」三類,皆可修飾單音節或雙音節的謂語;同樣的,「更」的變體有「更是」、「更加」、「更為」、「更要」、「更是要」五類,只能修飾雙音節(含以上)的謂語。

      本研究最後根據分析結果,比照前人研究中關於比較項(X、Y)與比較結果項(W)的語意制約並進行分析後,進而提出教學建議。期望藉此提供給華語教學者與學習者作為參考的依據。
    This study, based on a corpus, aims to investigate the Chinese adverbs hái (還) and gèng (更) in the bǐ (比) sentence from the perspectives of syntax structure and pragmatics. In this study, the theoretical backgrounds contain Halliday's (1994) systemic functional grammar, Grice's (1975) cooperative principle, Leech's (1983) politeness principle, Frege's (1892) presupposition, Lyons’ (1977) subjectivity, Traugott's (1995) subjectification, and Halliday and Hasan's (1976) cohesion of text function. This study first explored the meaning of the bǐ (比) sentence, next analyzed the bǐ (比) sentence containing hái (還) and gèng (更) from the perspectives of syntax and pragmatics. In addition, the variant structures and the types of hái (還) and gèng (更) in the bǐ (比) sentence were also analyzed.

    The data show that in the item which means ''comparison result (W)'', the modifying function of hái (還) and gèng (更) in the bǐ (比) sentence often comes along with the adjective. On the other hand, in the item which means "comparison (X/Y)", the combination of the sentence structure is directly related to Halliday and Hasan's (1976) cohesion of text function. It is mainly affected by the economy principle. If hái (還) and gèng (更) are interchangeable in the bǐ (比) sentence, this comes under the usage of objectivity statement. If not, this would result in the different pragmatic functions due to the truth value of the sentence meaning having been changed. Whereas gèng (更) has the meanings of degree comparison and progressive comparison, there are several different pragmatic functions in hái (還) such as counter-expectation, subjectivity, transitional function, and exaggerated metaphor. The data analysis suggests that the functions of hái (還) are directly related with Grice's (1975) cooperative principle and Leech's (1983) politeness principle. Among the variant structures of hái (還), such as háiyào (還要), háigèng (還更) and háiyàogèng (還要更), were used to modify the predicate which contains single or two syllables. Similarly, among the variant structures of gèng (更), such as gèngshì (更是), gèng jiā (更加), gèngwéi (更為), gèngyào (更要) and gèngshìyào (更是要), are used to modify the predicate which contains two (or above) syllables.

    Finally, based on the results, the semantic restriction in the item (X/Y) and the item (W) were analyzed and some pedagogical implications were offered. It is hoped that the results can serve as a reference for both Mandarin teachers and learners.
    Appears in Collections:[華語文教學研究所] 博碩士論文
    [華語所] 王萸芳

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