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    題名: 漢語四字聚合詞的構詞與詞義研究
    A study of Chinese Four-Character Polymerized Words's Word-formation and Words Meanings
    Authors: 王高帆
    Kao-Fan Wang
    貢獻者: 方麗娜
    Li-Na Fang
    Keywords: 漢語;四字聚合詞;構詞;詞義;詞彙化
    Chinese;four-character polymerized words;word-formation;words meanings;lexicalization
    Date: 2013-07-23
    Issue Date: 2013-12-02 14:06:29 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 漢語聚合詞是一種結構非常特殊的詞彙。聚合詞的語義泛化非常普遍,並帶有濃厚的文化色彩。在對外華語文教學中,外籍生若能學會聚合詞,不但有助於提升華語文的運用能力,並可增進對中華文化的理解與掌握。
    本研究旨在探討漢語四字聚合詞的構詞、詞義及詞彙化等相關問題。研究方法採用靜態資料的質性分析法,研究語料來源是《教育部重編國語辭典修訂本》和《聯合知識庫》,本研究針對所歸納的114個漢語四字聚合詞進行分析與探討。
    本研究有關四字聚合詞的研究發現如下:在構詞方面,影響其構詞順序的原則及分布情形為:顯著性原則占15.8%、語義對舉原則占32.5%、語義親近原則占14%、順序性原則占7.9%、因果關係原則占4.4%、文化制約原則占14%、語音聲調原則占11.4%。在構詞語素之變動方面,語素發生變動者占53.5%,語素不可變動者占46.5%;而導致構成語素變動的原因,主要有:聲調格律的要求、修辭手段、語言詩化、文化心理及語言習慣等因素。在詞彙意義方面,以「整體義包含字面義但意義已擴大」的數量最多,占77.2%;其次為「整體義非字面義」,占14.9%;最少的是「整體義是字面義」,占7.9%。在感情意義方面,主要是以中性義為主,占75.4%;其次為貶義,占14.1%;而褒義最少,占10.5%。在語體意義方面,此114個四字聚合詞的語體意義均可視為書面語體意義。在詞彙化程度方面,其詞彙化程度的高低與意義的泛化和轉義關係密切;產生轉義者,詞彙化程度最高;意義泛化者,詞彙化程度次之;而仍保留字面基本義者,詞彙化程度最低。至於導致其產生詞彙化的原因,在語言的內部因素方面有:四音節的形式緊縮、不成詞語素的依附性及意義的泛化和轉義;在語言的外部因素方面有:高頻率的使用與成語的類比認同。
    Chinese Polymerized Words are a kind of extraordinary structure vocabularies. The situation of semantic generalization of polymerized words is extremely common and deeply cultural. If foreign students can learn polymerized vocabularies, as the Chinese external teaching, it is not only helpful to enhance the Chinese language proficiency but also enhance the understanding and mastering in Chinese culture.
    This study is aimed to explore the Chinese four-character polymerized words, meaning and vocabulary and other related issues. Qualitative analysis of information under static state is used as the research methods, and the Amended Reprogramming Mandarin dictionary of the Ministry of Education and the Udndata are the research corpus sources. This paper summarized in 114 Chinese four-character polymerized words, analyzed and discussed them.
    The following are about the discoveries of four-character polymerized words. As the formation of vocabularies, which affect the principle of the formation of vocabularies and distribution, the principle of significance account for 15.8%, the principle of semantic opposition account for 32.5% , the principle of semantic intimated account for 14%,the principle of sequence account for 7.9%, the principle of causality account for 4.4%, the principle of cultural restriction account for 14%, and the principle of tone and voice account for 10.6%. In terms of the alteration of the word formation morpheme, the alternate of morphemes account for 53.5%, and the immutable morpheme account for 46.5%. The main results for morpheme changing are requirements of metrical tone, rhetoric, poetic language, cultural psychology, language habits and other factors. As the aspect of lexical meaning, the "holistic significances including literal significances, but the meaning has expended” is the largest number, which account for 77.2%. The following is "non-literal meaning of the holistic significances", accounting for 14.9%. Last is the "holistic significances is the literal significances", accounting for 7.9%. As the aspect of emotional significance, the main meaning is neutral significances, accounting for 75.4%. The following are derogatory significances, accounting for 14.1%, while complimentary senses are the least, accounting for 10.5%. As the aspect of stylistic meanings, the stylistic meaning of the 114 four-character polymerized words can all be considered as written stylistic significance. In terms of the extent of lexicalization, the magnitude of the extent of lexicalization is close to generalized significance and the relationship of transformed words. The vocabularies which meanings are transformed, the magnitude of the extent of lexicalization is the highest. The vocabularies which meanings are generalized, the magnitude of the extent of lexicalization is followed. And the vocabularies which basic literally meanings are retained, the magnitude of the extent of lexicalization is the lowest. As for the cause of which generate the extent of lexicalization, the tightening of the form of four-syllable grid, the non-word morphemes's dependence, the generalized meaning and transformed significances are the internal factors of the language. The external factors of the language are the frequent use and the analogy identification of idioms.
    Appears in Collections:[華語文教學研究所] 博碩士論文

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