|Abstract: ||應用研究, 研究期間 10008~ 10107, 研究經費 673千元|
知識管理已蓬勃發展近20 年，儘管諸多知識管理文獻強調知識係「組織提升競爭優勢之重要因素」，然文獻卻鮮少將直接知識管理議題與競爭觀念連結，因此文獻對於知識基礎之競爭策略缺乏理論根底，而存在一研究缺口。另根據產業組織經濟學之結構─策略/作為─績效典範文獻，廠商策略必須與市場結構配適，而具有其權宜性。基此，本研究引用兩項典範與觀點：(1)結構─策略/作為─績效典範；(2)任務特性之權宜觀點（引用Becerra-Frernandez and Sabherwal (2001) 之寬廣度－聚斂度、內容─程序導向二面向），切入此依議題，建構並探討廠商以知識與同業競爭之行為與模態，以及其決定因素及相關後效。因此，本研究欲達到下列目標： 1. 以前述二基礎，探討並建構知識競爭策略之架構與內涵。 2. 探討廠商策略群組取向、知識競爭策略、知識管理行為與知識管理績效之關係。 3. 瞭解任務特性之權宜性在前述關係中之干擾效果。 4. 探討知識競爭策略與知識管理行為之中介效果。。 5. 經由三階段之專家訪談與調查法瞭解台灣產業前述議題之現況。經文獻回顧與初步計畫，本研究計包括下列構念： 1. 市場結構：以策略群組取向建構之，分為專注固守、縱深強化、多角防禦與整合拓展四構念。 2. 廠商策略：以知識競爭策略建構之，分為知識利用、聚焦、多元與展延四構念。 3. 廠商行為：以知識管理行為為建構基礎，沿襲Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995)之分類，區分為外展化、內聚化、結合化與社會化。 4. 廠商績效：以知識管理績效操作之，包括深入度、蓄積度、成長度、擴散度、多樣性、創造力、整合性與轉化度。本研究將以經濟部工商名錄為樣本，抽取其高階主管進行問卷調查。本研究對釐清知識競爭策略之相關議題，應具有研究與實務上之價值。
Knowledge management (KM) issues have played critical roles in management- and business-related fields for decades. Though many studies treat knowledge as “the critical factor creates competitive advantage”, relatively few of them, however, converge KM issues with competition directly and hence exhibit a theoretical gap. Moreover, based on the structure-strategy/conduct-performance paradigm (S-SC-P) originated from industrial organization economics, firms need to elaborate the fit between market structure and organizational strategy by considering the contingency and situational context. Accordingly, this study attempts to employ two theoretical bases: (1) S-SC-P paradigm, and (2) contingency perspective (conducted by Becerra-Frernandez and Sabherwal, 2001), to explore the behaviors and modes that firms compete to their rivals with knowledge base, and the antecedents and consequences. Thus, this study attempts to achieve the goals as the follows. 1. To explore the content and model of knowledge-based competitive strategy (KBCS) based on the previous theoretical bases. 2. To examine the relationship between strategic group attributes, KBCS, KM conduct, and KM performance. 3. To verify the moderating effects of contingencies on the previous relationships. 4. To clarify the moderating roles of KBCS and KM conduct. 5. To empirically study the present practices of the above constructs in Taiwan via three-phase interviews and surveys. After literature review and preliminary efforts, this study proposes to research the following constructs. 1. Market structure. This study employs strategic group attributes as the base and accordingly constructs by four elements, concentrative defense, focus improvement, diversified defense, and convergent expansion. 2. Firm strategy. It constructs KBCS with knowledge exploitation, focus, diversification, and expansion. 3. Firm conduct. Following Nonaka and Takeuchi’s (1995) SECI knowledge spiral, here KM conduct is consisted of externalization, internalization, combination, and socialization. 4. Performance. This study measures KM performance by eight indicators, i.e., profundity, accumulation, growth, dissemination, diversification, creation, convergence, and conversion. This study selects the Industry and Business List published by Ministry of Economic Affairs as the samples and accordingly samples higher-rank managers to respond the survey. The evidences of this study exhibit the academic and practical values regarding KM and competition issues.