|Abstract: ||本篇論文撰寫的主旨乃在突顯赫曼．赫塞 (Hermann Hesse)《流浪者之歌》(Siddhartha) 文本中主角釋達坦 (Siddhartha) 在心理上與生理上的成長。藉由容格的理論，人們能夠對自身的心理狀態作深入的剖析。而人們對自身的了解越深，就越不受國家與宗教意識形態的束縛，從而達成世界和平的目的。|
This thesis attempts to bring forth the relationship between Jungian theory of the self and an actual psychological as well as physical growth of a person as evidenced by Hesse’s Siddhartha. Throughout the study, I treat this novel as Hesse’s effort to impart to modern people a way to gain a better understanding of themselves, which allows people to be free from the control of the dictatorial State or of a religion. Therefore, the tension between ego and the self, the confrontation between persona, shadow and anima and the function of libido serve as focal points in this study.
In the first chapter, I intend to argue that to oppose the influences of the collectivity, an individual should possess his or her own thinking and not to be afraid of being alienated from the crowd. Historically, many states, religions and oligarchs have tried their utmost to control the individuals to achieve their audacious ambitions either to launch wars or to conquer the world. Once the collectivity stays under the control of States, the individual therefore loses his or her meaning of existence and is prohibited from expressing his or her opinions. The only way to stand against these authorities and to end world conflicts is to dig into his or her own psyche and to have a clear understanding of his or her self. Jung, thus, declares that the process of individuation is the best method to rescue our souls.
In Chapter Two, I offer the reasons why many critics regard Siddhartha as a Bildungsroman. Also, I will expound my view that, in fact, it is not so much a Bildungsroman as a work of psychological development. Moreover, in this chapter, I give a detailed delineation of the process of individuation. Only by going through one’s persona, shadow, anima and the development of the self can a man or an woman cast off all the fake identities of his or her self, and thus attain a harmonies state of both in inner and outer worlds.
In Chapter Three, my focus shifts from psychological development to physical development. Jung has indicated that individuation needs physical manifestation. Thus, mutual cooperation is needed, mentally as well as physically, to achieve wholeness. Besides, four eras constitute Jung’s sketch of human life cycle, including childhood, young adulthood, middle adulthood and old age. Since the four eras are separated on the ground of the changing ego, in this chapter, I approve of the four stages of life cycle in terms of the inflated ego, the alienated ego and the encounter with the self.
In Chapter Four, I compare the river in the book to Jungian libido. The river in Siddhartha is by all means the most important element, and Siddhartha’s three encounters with the river bring about tremendous changes in his attitude toward life as well as toward people. Furthermore, I attempt to trace back to our inner world and analyze the power that moves all the psychic activities. It is the psychic energy, also termed as libido, which flows up and down to create all sorts of human emotions, moods and characteristics. Thus, I explore the impact that libido may have on a person’s life.
In the last chapter, I offer a brief reassessment of the influences that Jungian psychology has on Hesse’s writing of Siddhartha.