基礎研究, 研究期間 9708~ 9807, 研究經費 1161 千元 生物膠膜遍佈於所有浸於水的固體表面，擁有相當多樣的微生物族群，因而可以提供具高活性的微生物與相當大的表面積來吸附與代謝水中的污染物。農藥的大量使用，特別是有機磷類與氨基甲酸鹽類農藥，已經導致其出現在各種環境(如土壤、水與空氣)中，造成生物之毒害。而農藥在環境中之分解主要是藉由生物與非生物降解作用。因此，調查河川生物膠膜對農藥的生物降解能力，可以評估河川生態系統之天然生物降解在河川自淨的效果與進一步使用其作為污染河川之生物復育。所以本研究將分析常用的有機磷類與氨基甲酸鹽類農藥之生物膠膜生物降解動力學，主要目的為：(1)探討生長在不同季節之河川生物膠膜在不同的環境條件下對農藥的生物降解的過程，以獲得最佳之生物降解條件與瞭解河川生物膠膜於天然環境下在農藥生物降解上所扮演的角色；(2) 調查在農藥生物降解過程中河川生物膠膜?微生物群聚之變化，以得到可作為河川生物復育之最好的微生物群聚；(3)從具高降解率的生物膠膜中篩選出擁有高農藥降解能力之微生物種類，以提供降解農藥之生物材料；(4)建立篩選出的微生物種類在不同環境條件下之農藥降解動力學，並進一步探討其應用在河川生物復育之可行性。 River biofilms form ubiquitously where solid surfaces are in contact with aqueous environment and consist of diverse microbial communities which may provide highly active microorganisms and extensive surface areas for sorption and metabolism of contaminants. The wide spread use of pesticides, particularly organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides, in agriculture has led to their presence in different environmental compartments such soil, water and air, posing an ecotoxicological threat to organisms. It has been found that pesticide degradation in the environment mostly depends on biotic and abiotic mechanisms. Thus, investigation of the biodegradation capacity of river biofilms to pesticides is indispensable in assessing the impact of natural biodegradation on cleaning strategies in river ecosystems and on river bioremediation. Therefore, this study would like to determine biodegradation kinetics of commonly used organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides by river biofilms. The objectives are (1) to analyze the biodegradation processes of pesticides by river biofilms from different seasons under the different environmental conditions in order to obtain optimal degradation condition and to understand the role of biofilms on pesticide biodegradation in the natural environment; (2) to investigate changes in microbial communities within river biofilms during pesticide biodegradation in order to provide the best biofilm communities for use in the river pesticide bioremediation processes; (3) To screen high potential pesticide-degrading bacterial strains isolated from river biofilms with high degradation rates in order to provide biomaterials for removal of pesticides from contaminated water; (4) To establish the biodegradation kinetics of screened bacterial strains under different environmental conditions and to evaluated the possibility of using them for river bioremediation.